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Oxford Biomedical Research - Specific Application Areas
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Specific Application and Product Information on the Oxford Biomedical Research Range of Products
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Information on Specific Application Areas for Oxford Biomedical Research products can be found below. For full information on any Oxford Biomedical Research products, please visit the Oxford Biomedical Research website.
Specific Product/Application Areas
Go to Eicosanoid Metabolism Eicosanoid Metabolism
Go to Oxidative Stress Oxidative Stress
Go to Signal Transduction Signal Transduction
Go to Vascular Biology Vascular Biology
Go to Xenobiotic Metabolism Xenobiotic Metabolism
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Specific Application Areas Products and Applications
Eicosanoid Metabolism
Go to Oxford Biomedical Research websiteThe central role of eicosanoids in inflammation and in many diseases is widely recognised. Oxford Biomedical Research supply a comprehensive range of reagents for studies of eicosanoid metabolism, including purified and recombinant enzymes, polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, and immunoassay kits for the reliable quantification of key eicosanoids.

Note: Eicosanoids is the term given to four groups of signalling molecules and other related signalling molecules. The eicosanoids include the prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes and leukatrienes. Other classes of related molecules sometimes termed eicosanoids include lipoxins and isoprostanes.
Eicosanoid Assays
Eicosanoid Enzymes
Eicosanoid Antibodies
Inflammation Biomarkers
Related products
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Oxidative Stress
Go to Oxford Biomedical Research websiteFree radicals are so reactive and short-lived that direct measurement is usually not possible. However, hundreds of biomolecules are known to be derived from the interaction of free radicals with biomolecules. Assays for some of these oxidative stress biomarkers, as well as assays for several of the body’s antioxidant defence mechanisms, have been widely used. Although there are numerous tools on the market, a small number of oxidised lipids, as well as by-products of DNA and protein oxidation, have withstood the test of time. Oxford Biomedical Research objective is to provide you with straightforward, reliable assays for oxidative stress biomarkers and for antioxidant capacity of biological fluids.
Antioxidant Measurement
Cellular Response to ROS/NOS
Enzymes involved in RO Metabolism
Isoprostane Quantification
Oxidative DNA Damage
Oxidised Lipid Quantification
Oxidised Proteins

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Signal Transduction
Go to Oxford Biomedical Research websiteCellular signal transduction refers to the movement of signals from outside the cell to inside. Several distinct and diverse families of signal transduction mechanisms have been discovered - all of which cause alteration in cellular activity and/or changes in gene expression. Signal transduction can result from small molecules or ions (e.g. nitric oxide, steroids) moving into a cell, whereupon they bind to a cellular target and alter its activity. Other forms of cellular signal transduction involve the coupling of ligand-receptor interactions to intracellular events such as phosphorylation mediated by tyrosine kinases and/or serine/threonine kinases. The phosphorylated protein(s) exhibit altered activities.

Given the very large number of genes, proteins, and smaller biomolecules involved in cellular signal transduction, it is not possible for any supplier to provide suitable reagents for the study of all signal transduction mechanisms. And, although many of the molecules and pathways mentioned above (notably reactive oxygen species and eicosanoids) are either involved in or can be used to study cellular signal transduction, Oxford Biomedical Research is focused on reagents for the study of selected hormones (steroid hormones) and selected signal transduction mechanisms (nitric oxide and protein kinases). The latter includes antibodies to several phosphoprotein phosphatases, whose contributions to the regulation of kinase pathways have not yet been fully investigated.
Cyclic Nucleotides
Nitric Oxide Synthase
Protein Kinases
Protein Kinase C Reagents
Steroid Hormone Assays
Steroid Hormones
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Vascular Biology
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Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) cause more deaths per year than the next six leading causes of death combined. There is also strong evidence for a role of oxidative stress, a key focus at Oxford Biomedical Research, in the development of CVD. Emerging risk factors for CVD include isoprostanes, C-reactive proteins, fibrinogen and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1). Fibrinogen and PAI-1 are key components of the highly regulated coagulation process. Elevated PAI-1 transcription has been reported to be caused by oxidative stress activation of the AP-1 response element. Vascular endothelial cells also play a key role in cancer by limiting the access of circulating cells to sub-endothelial space and thereby reducing tumour metastasis.

Oxford Biomedical Research offer a wide range of antibodies, purified and recombinant proteins, and immunoassay kits for studies of proteins involved in cardiovascular biology – including those that play key roles in coagulation and its regulation, as well as other proteins (e.g. vitronectin and LDL-receptor associated protein) that have been recognised as important in cardiovascular pathobiology.
Coagulation Proteins
Extracellular Matrix
Plasminogen Activation
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Xenobiotic Metabolism
Go to Oxford Biomedical Research websiteXenobiotics are molecules that are not produced in vivo, but rather, are introduced into the body from the environment and subsequently metabolised by the body. Routes of introduction to the body include inhalation (e.g. aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke), intravenous (e.g. various anaesthetics), transdermal and, for many pharmaceutical agents, ingestion.  The metabolism of xenobiotics in our environment is an important field of investigation. However, to minimise risk and optimize therapeutic benefits, it is critical that the metabolism of candidate pharmaceutical agents be elucidated, including identification and properties of key metabolites.

The metabolism of xenobiotic substances may be divided into two phases.

Phase I Reactions: Addition or unmasking of a functional polar group. This typically results in a relatively small increase in hydrophilicity and may cause metabolic activation. These include enzymes such as cytochrome P450, flavin-containing monooxygenases, alcohol dehydrogenase, hydrolases, epoxide hydrolase, and carboxyl esterases.

Phase II Reactions: Conjugation with a small hydrophilic endogenous substance - often, but not always, to a functional group provided by a Phase I reaction - thereby significantly increasing hydrophilicity and facilitating excretion. These enzymes and molecules consist of
glutathione s-transferases, glutathione, sulphate, and glucuronic acid.

Oxford Biomedical Research provides a variety of assay kits, antibodies and purified proteins for studying Phase I and Phase II reactions.
Cytochrome P450 (1A, 2A,2B,2C, 2D, 2E, 3A, 4a, Cytochrome b5, P450 Oxidoreductase)
Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST-Alpha, GST-Mu, GST-Pi, GST-Theta)
Additional Reagents
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